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Home » Physics Homework Help » Quantum Physics » Energy Quantization
Energy Quantization
When a body is at rest, the particles in it are continuously moving inside the body. The particles also exert forces on each other and there is a potential energy corresponding to these forces. The total energy corresponding to the internal motion of molecules and their interaction is called internal energy or thermal energy of the body. Light and sound are other forms of energy, when a source emits light or sound, it loses energy. Chemical energy is significant in chemical reactions.

Even a material particle itself is a form of energy. Thus, about 8.18 x 10-14j or 511 keV or energy may be converted to form an electron and an equal amount of energy may be obtained by destroying an electron. E = mc2 is used for mass-energy equivalence.

Mechanical energy is related to macroscopic motion of the object, sound is also a form of mechanical energy. Internal energy is directly related to temperature. Of the body, the real energy is related to random motion of molecules while internal energy is related to motion as well as their configuration or arrangement.

Chemical energy is required or released during formation of compounds. Electrical or electromagnetic energy is the result of force exerted by changes or currents on each other.

Mass-energy E = mc2 relates mass with energy or vice versa. Nuclear energy results due to nuclear force between neutrons and protons.

Planck has shown that radiations emitted by a black body are quantized. Quantum nature of energy is confirmed anatomic subatomic world, even light energy is quantized.

Potential energy exists only for conservative forces. It does not exist for no conservative forces. All the central forces are conservative.

Elastic potential energy PE = 1/2 ky2 is always positive

Electric potential energy PE = q1q2/4π∈or may  be positive or negative

Gravitational potential energy

PE = - Gm1m2/r may be positive or negative = mgh (if height is not very large)

If a body is in static or dynamic equilibrium then work done is zero.

If a force is always perpendicular to veloci8ty work done is zero.

If a force is always perpendicular to velocity work done is zero.

Total mechanical energy of a system reaming constant if the internal forces are conservative and external forces do not work.

Total mechanical energy KE + PE is not conserved if neoconservative forces like friction act.

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