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Home » Chemistry Homework Help » Biochemistry » Biostatistics
Biostatistics
All scientific knowledge has to be evaluated statistically before sound conclusions can be drawn. A  student of biology or medicine will come across statements made on the basis of statistical evaluation not only in biochemistry but in all other subjects as well. A brief introduction to the terminology used an and Explanations of some of the simple calculation are therefore included in this aspect:

Observation: the basis of all learning process is sound observation by individual workers or organized institutions. The observer has to have a scientific outlook and must be capable or accurate observations based on well planned experiments or studies then only the observation can be relied upon.

Reasoning: a motion a premise or an assumption is made based on few observations initially, which may be just change unplanned observations (say three or four persons from a particular part of the country are taller than the local population). Then you start observing more carefully and watch several more people from those regions. If all of them or most of them are taller than the local population you come to the conclusion that people from that region are generally taller than people of your locality the thought processes which enable you to draw a conclusion from your initial assumption are known as reasoning.

Logic: a set of rules are laid down for correct reasoning and are known as logic thus you find dozens of crows in your garden and all of them are black. Wherever you go, all the crows you see are black you therefore draw the conclusion that all the black birds you see in your garden are crows the black birds you see at every pale on inaccurate and insufficient observations whereby you have missed noticing the several other varieties of birds which are also black.

This type of reasoning based on individual observations (on the color of a few crows) and making a generalization (that all crows are black) is called inductive reasoning. It can be the other way also. You might have observed serve monkey s and noticed that each one of them has a tail. You might have observed several monkeys and noticed that each one of them has a tail. When you next look at a monkey from a distance even without looking at its hind portion you can think: all monkeys have tails. This is a monkey. So it must have a tail,’ this type of reasoning is called deductive reasoning.

The conclusions reached in either type of reasoning are called inferences. The statements all crows are black or all monkeys have tails are called hypotheses if the hypothesis is confirmed by several observations and preferably by several independent observers, it becomes theory.

Frequency distribution: if a constituent say blood glucose is estimated in a large number of people say 1,000 in the fasting condition it will e forum that individual values do not coincide and it will appear that there is much variation. But proper analysis of the values by statistical methods will show that there is a pattern even among the varying blood sugar values. They may all lie between 60 mg% to 10 mg% several persons may be having the same blood sugar % for the sake of simplicity if they are tabulated in increments of 5 mg % per block the data will work out into a pattern like the one in the table below.

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