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Home » Biology Homework Help » Biotechnology » Embryo Transfer Technology
Embryo Transfer Technology
The embryo transfer technology offers several advantages which are manifest in its varied applications; these are briefly enumerated below.

1. This technology achieves a surprisingly rapid rate of multiplication of animals of the selected superior genotype. In natural course, a single female will produce a single progeny in about one year. But using superovulation and embryo transfer technology, it is feasible to collect around 36 embryos from one female in one year. A single female can be induced to ovalute, on an average, 6 times a year, and in which ovulation cycle about 6 healthy transplantable embryos are obtained. Assuming an average success rate of 50% in the embryo transfer, an average of 18 progeny can be derived from one superior female in one year.

2. Each young embryo can be split into 2-4 parts, each of which would develop into a separate progeny; this is called embryo splitting. By combining embryo splitting with superovulation and embryo transfer techniques, the rate of multiplication can be further increased.

3. The young embryos can be frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for upto 10 years or more and used at a subsequent date. The frozen embryos are far easier to transport, and present negligible quarantine problems as compared to the animals themselves.

Freezing and storage of young embryos in liquid nitrogen (at -196˚C) is known as cryopreservation. The embryos are first treated with a suitable concentration of a compound like glycerol which protects them from injury during freezing and thawing; such compounds are called cryoprotectants. They are them cooled at a slow rate to -38˚C, ordinarily employing a programmable controlled rate freezer. These embryos are then plunged into liquid nitrogen and stored at -196˚C. The embryos are thawed at a very rapid rate by immersing the ampoule carrying them into a water bath maintained at 0˚C.

4. Superior cours that are unfit to carry the foetus for full term, can serve as donors of the young embryos.

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