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Home » Biology Homework Help » Biotechnology » Animal Cloning
Animal Cloning
When complete animals are obtained from somatic cells of an animal, it is called animal cloning. Cloning is routine in plants but in case of animals only a limited success had been achieved so far. Earlier, nuclei from a tadpole were transplanted into the cytoplasm of an enucleated fertilized frog egg, and normal frogs were obtained. But early, in 1997 British scientists announced successful cloning of sheep by transferring the nucleus from an udder cell of an adult sheep into the cytoplasm of an eunucleated fertilized egg. The egg was then transplanted into the uterus of a surrogate mother where it developed like a normal zygote into a normal lamb which has now grown into a normal adult sheep.

Udder cells from an adult sheep were first cultured in vitro. The cultured cells were arrested in the Go phase (quiescent stage) and then fused in vitro with enucleated ova of appropriate stage. The fusion products were cultured in vitro before their transfer into the uteri of surrogate mothers. The rate of success in obtaining normal embryo developed is rather low.
 
Cloning is, in many situations, highly desirable since allows indefinite multiplication of an elite desirable without the risk of segregation and recombination during meiosis, which must precede sexual reproduction. Obviously, the technique holds a great promise in genetic research, especially in understanding aging and curing genetic diseases. The technique needs to be refined and expanded to other animals. However, in most countries, especially in all developed countries, human cloning is illegal.

Following the above report American scientist announced successful cloning of rhesus monkey using splitting technique; this is the closest species to humans where embryo splitting has been successful.

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